Solitary Sandpiper / Tringa solitaria

Solitary Sandpiper / Tringa solitaria

Solitary Sandpiper

SCI Name:  Tringa solitaria
Protonym:  Tringa solitaria Am.Orn. 7 p.53 pl.58 fig.3
Category:  Charadriiformes / Scolopacidae /
Taxonomy Code:  solsan
Type Locality:  Pocono Mountain, Pennsylvania, Kentucky and New York.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1813
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

TRINGA
(Scolopacidae; Ϯ Green Sandpiper T. ochropus) Late Med. L. tringa name given to the Green Sandpiper by Aldrovandus 1599 < Gr. τρυγγας trungas thrush-sized, white-rumped wading bird that bobs its tail, mentioned by Aristotle, not further identified, but taken by later authors to be a sandpiper, wagtail, or dipper; "78. TRINGA.  Rostrum teretiusculum, longitudine capitis.  Pedes tetradactyli: postico uniarticulato a terra elevato." (Linnaeus 1758); "Tringa Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 148. Type, by tautonymy, Tringa ocrophus Linné (Tringa, prebinomial specific name in synonymy)." (Peters 1934, II, 264). Linnaeus's Tringa comprised thirteen species (T. Pugnax, T. Vanellus, T. Gambetta, T. Interpres, T. tobata, T. Fulicaria, T. alpina, T. Ocrophus, T. Hypoleucos, T. Canutus, T. Glareola, T. littorea, T. Squatarola).  
Var. Trunga, Trynga, Tryngas, Tringra, Trinca, Frinca, Fringa.
Synon. Aegialodes, Carites, Catoptrophorus, Erythroscelus, Gambetta, Glottis, Helodromas, Heteractitis, Heteroscelus, Hodites, Iliornis, Limicula, Nea, Neoglottis, Ochropus, Pseudoglottis, Pseudototanus, Rhyacophilus, Totanus.
● (syn. Calidris Ϯ Red Knot C. canutus) “Type by subsequent designation of Gray (List Gen. Bds. 1st ed. 1840, p. 69): T. canutus Linn. If the method of Linnean tautonymy be followed, the type of the genus must be ... Tringa ochropus Linn.” (BOU 1915).
● (syn. Vanellus Ϯ Northern Lapwing V. vanellus) "GENUS 115. TRINGA Lin. Cuv. Lath. Dumer.  Vanellus Briss. Bechst. Meyer.  Parra LaCépède. (Kibitz Germ. Vanneau Gall. Lapwing Angl.)  ...  Species: Tringa Vanellus, varia Lin.  Parra Cayennensis Lin Gmel.  Observat: Tota avis, praesertim secundum rostrum, ita similis est Charadriis, ut, demto halluce, discrimen vix restet. Caeterum observo, Tringae characteres a Linnaeo enumeratos, cum solis Vanellis Auctorum quadrare, nec cum Actitibus, quas cum illis confuderat. Nomen Tringae hanc ob caussam Vanellis servandum erat" (Illiger 1811).

solitaria / solitaris / solitarius
L. solitarius  solitary  < solus, solius  alone.
● According to Fraser in P. Sclater 1859a, the Solitary Shrike Tyrant was called “el Solitario” by the Spanish settlers of Ecuador (Agriornis).
● ex “Coucou Solitaire” of Levaillant 1806, pl. 206 (Cuculus).
● ex “Green-headed Bunting” of Latham 1785 (syn. Emberiza hortulana).
● “Solitary Sparrow  ...  It is wont to sit alone on the tops of ancient Edifices and Roofs of Churches, singing most sweetly, especially in the Morning, whence it took its name” (Ray 1678); "95. TURDUS.  ...  solitarius.  14. T. cæruleus, remigibus rectricibusque nigris, abdomine lineolis cinereis undulato.  Passer solitarius. Willugb. orn. 191. Raj. av. 66. Edw. av. 18. t. 18. Olin. av. 14. Act. Ups. 1750. p. 21.  Habitat in Oriente.  Mas cæruleus; Femina cinerea, subtus lineolis albis & cinereis undulata." (Linnaeus 1758) (Monticola).
● (Statius Müller 1776) ex “Merle solitaire de Manille” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 564, fig. 2 (syn. Monticola solitarius philippensis).
● (J. Gmelin 1789) ex “Passera solitaria” of Olina 1622, “Solitary Sparrow” of Willughby 1676, “Passer solitarius” of Ray 1713, “Merula solitaria” of Brisson 1760, “Merle solitaire” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Solitary Thrush” of Latham 1783 (syn. Monticola solitarius).
● ex “Suirirí chorreado todo” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 196 (Myiodynastes).
● ex “Solitaire” of Leguat 1708, and de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Solitary Dodo” of Latham 1785: “not met with in flocks, scarcely more than two being found together” (‡Pezophaps).
● ex “Solitary Parrot” of Latham 1787 (Phigys).
● ex “Japú negro” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 58 (Procacicus).
● ex “Oiseau Solitaire” of Carré 1669, and “Solitaire” of Dubois 1674 (this bird was formerly thought to be a species of dodo Raphus) (‡Threskiornis).
● ex “Ynambú Mocoicogoé” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 332 (Tinamus).
● "This new species inhabits the watery solitudes of our highest mountains during the summer, from Kentucky to New York" (A. Wilson 1813) (Tringa).

SUBSPECIES

Solitary Sandpiper (solitaria)
SCI Name: Tringa solitaria solitaria
solitaria / solitaris / solitarius
L. solitarius  solitary  < solus, solius  alone.
● According to Fraser in P. Sclater 1859a, the Solitary Shrike Tyrant was called “el Solitario” by the Spanish settlers of Ecuador (Agriornis).
● ex “Coucou Solitaire” of Levaillant 1806, pl. 206 (Cuculus).
● ex “Green-headed Bunting” of Latham 1785 (syn. Emberiza hortulana).
● “Solitary Sparrow  ...  It is wont to sit alone on the tops of ancient Edifices and Roofs of Churches, singing most sweetly, especially in the Morning, whence it took its name” (Ray 1678); "95. TURDUS.  ...  solitarius.  14. T. cæruleus, remigibus rectricibusque nigris, abdomine lineolis cinereis undulato.  Passer solitarius. Willugb. orn. 191. Raj. av. 66. Edw. av. 18. t. 18. Olin. av. 14. Act. Ups. 1750. p. 21.  Habitat in Oriente.  Mas cæruleus; Femina cinerea, subtus lineolis albis & cinereis undulata." (Linnaeus 1758) (Monticola).
● (Statius Müller 1776) ex “Merle solitaire de Manille” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 564, fig. 2 (syn. Monticola solitarius philippensis).
● (J. Gmelin 1789) ex “Passera solitaria” of Olina 1622, “Solitary Sparrow” of Willughby 1676, “Passer solitarius” of Ray 1713, “Merula solitaria” of Brisson 1760, “Merle solitaire” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Solitary Thrush” of Latham 1783 (syn. Monticola solitarius).
● ex “Suirirí chorreado todo” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 196 (Myiodynastes).
● ex “Solitaire” of Leguat 1708, and de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Solitary Dodo” of Latham 1785: “not met with in flocks, scarcely more than two being found together” (‡Pezophaps).
● ex “Solitary Parrot” of Latham 1787 (Phigys).
● ex “Japú negro” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 58 (Procacicus).
● ex “Oiseau Solitaire” of Carré 1669, and “Solitaire” of Dubois 1674 (this bird was formerly thought to be a species of dodo Raphus) (‡Threskiornis).
● ex “Ynambú Mocoicogoé” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 332 (Tinamus).
● "This new species inhabits the watery solitudes of our highest mountains during the summer, from Kentucky to New York" (A. Wilson 1813) (Tringa).

Solitary Sandpiper (cinnamomea)
SCI Name: Tringa solitaria cinnamomea
cinnamomea
Mod. L. cinnamomeus  cinnamon-coloured, cinnamomeus  < L. cinnamomum or cinnamum  cinnamon  < Gr. κινναμωμον kinnamōmon or κινναμον kinnamon  cinnamon.
● ex “Merle à cravate de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 560, fig. 2, and “Black-breasted Thrush” of Latham 1783 (syn. Myrmoderus ferrugineus).