Yellow-throated Toucan / Ramphastos ambiguus

Yellow-throated Toucan / Ramphastos ambiguus

Yellow-throated Toucan

SCI Name:  Ramphastos ambiguus
Protonym:  Ramphastos ambiguus Zool.Ill. 3 pl.168,text
Category:  Piciformes / Ramphastidae /
Taxonomy Code:  bkmtou1
Type Locality:  No locality = Buenavista, Colombia, by designation of Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 34, 1917, p. 328.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1823
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

RAMPHASTOS
(Ramphastidae; Ϯ Red-billed Toucan R. tucanus) Aldrovandus’ 1599, misspelling “Ramphastos” of Gessner’s 1560, “Ramphestes” (Gr. ῥαμφηστης rhamphēstēs  snouted  < ῥαμφη rhampē  bill) was subsequently adopted by Linnaeus (cf. “Linnaeus calls it Rhamphastos  ...  a broad sword, from the form of its bill” (Pennant 1773)). The huge colourful bills of the toucans appear cumbersome, but are in fact very light, strengthened by a network of bony fibres within the horny shell; "45. RAMPHASTOS.  Rostrum maximum, inane, convexum, extrorsum serratum.  Nares pone maxillas.  Lingua pennacea.  Pedum digiti antici posticique gemini." (Linnaeus 1758); "Ramphastos Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 103. Type, by subsequent designation Ramphastos erythrorhynchus Gmelin = Ramphastos tucanus Linné (Vigors, Zool. Journ., 2, 1826, p. 471.)" (Peters 1948, VI, 82). This is the sixth diagnosed genus in avian taxonomy. Linnaeus's Ramphastos comprised four species (R. piperivorus, R. Tucanus, R. picatus, R. Aracari). 
Var. Ramphastros, Rhamphastos, Rhamphastus, Ramphestes.
Synon. Bucco, Burhynchus, Dinorhamphus, Machlostomus, Ramphodryas, Tucaius, Tucanus.

ambigua / ambiguum / ambiguus
L. ambiguus  doubtful, uncertain  < ambigere  to doubt  < preposition  ambi-  around; agere  to set in motion.
● ex “Grand Ara militaire” of Levaillant 1801, who was uncertain as to whether the Great Green Macaw was distinct from the Military Macaw A. militaris or just a constant variety (Ara).
● Despite an apparent series of transitional specimens between the Black-headed Greenfinch and the Oriental Greenfinch C. sinica, Oustalet 1896, still believed them to be two distinct spp. (Chloris).
● “Similar to S. r. rufifrons  ...  Distribution, — Probably Sikhim, Butan Duars, Assam, Naga Hills and Manipur” (Harington 1915) (subsp. Cyanoderma rufifrons).
● “While it is practically certain that this new bird is a conspecies of M. sclateri, the wide gap in the distribution of the two forms with no close relative known from the intervening area makes me hesitate to unite them at present” ( J. Zimmer 1932) (Myrmotherula).
● “Doubtful Toucan ... The species now selected is one I have never seen; but I have no doubt of its existence, and little of the accuracy of its delineation” (Swainson 1823) (Ramphastos).
● “This Bird is very nearly related to Trog. elegans ... These distinctions, although apparently trivial, having been observed ... in many specimens ... he is induced to regard the two Birds as being, very probably, specifically distinct” (Gould 1835) (Trogon).

SUBSPECIES

Yellow-throated Toucan (Chestnut-mandibled)
SCI Name: Ramphastos ambiguus swainsonii
swainsoni / swainsonii
William Swainson (1789-1855) English naturalist, artist, collector (Buteo, syn. Campephaga flavaCatharus, Chlorostilbon, syn. Circus macrourus, syn. Coracina lineata, syn. Cossypha niveicapilla, syn. Criniger calurus verreauxi, syn. Doricha enicura, Gampsonyx, syn. Halcyon leucocephala pallidiventris, syn. Iduna caligataLimnothlypis, syn. Mackenziaena severa, syn. Momotus momota bahamensis, Myiarchus (ex “Suirirí pardo amarillo menor” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 193), syn. Myrmeciza longipes (ex Myrmothera longipes Swainson, 1825), subsp. Notharchus macrorhynchos, Onychorhynchus, syn. Pachyramphus marginatus, Passer, syn. Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, syn. Phigys solitarius, syn. Philohydor lictor, syn. Phylloscopus nitidus, Polytelis, Pternistis, syn. Ptilinopus regina, subsp. Ramphastos ambiguus, syn. Struthidea cinerea, syn. Tangara sayaca, syn. Thinocorus rumicivorus, syn. Trichoglossus moluccanus, syn. Turdoides jardineii, subsp. Vireo gilvus).

Yellow-throated Toucan (Black-mandibled)
SCI Name: Ramphastos ambiguus ambiguus/abbreviatus
RAMPHASTOS
(Ramphastidae; Ϯ Red-billed Toucan R. tucanus) Aldrovandus’ 1599, misspelling “Ramphastos” of Gessner’s 1560, “Ramphestes” (Gr. ῥαμφηστης rhamphēstēs  snouted  < ῥαμφη rhampē  bill) was subsequently adopted by Linnaeus (cf. “Linnaeus calls it Rhamphastos  ...  a broad sword, from the form of its bill” (Pennant 1773)). The huge colourful bills of the toucans appear cumbersome, but are in fact very light, strengthened by a network of bony fibres within the horny shell; "45. RAMPHASTOS.  Rostrum maximum, inane, convexum, extrorsum serratum.  Nares pone maxillas.  Lingua pennacea.  Pedum digiti antici posticique gemini." (Linnaeus 1758); "Ramphastos Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 103. Type, by subsequent designation Ramphastos erythrorhynchus Gmelin = Ramphastos tucanus Linné (Vigors, Zool. Journ., 2, 1826, p. 471.)" (Peters 1948, VI, 82). This is the sixth diagnosed genus in avian taxonomy. Linnaeus's Ramphastos comprised four species (R. piperivorus, R. Tucanus, R. picatus, R. Aracari). 
Var. Ramphastros, Rhamphastos, Rhamphastus, Ramphestes.
Synon. Bucco, Burhynchus, Dinorhamphus, Machlostomus, Ramphodryas, Tucaius, Tucanus.